3.4.5 Kompetenzen: Schreiben

3.4.5 Kompetenzen: Schreiben

3.4.5.1 Schreiben im Chinesischen allgemein


  • Allen, J. R. (2008): Why learning to write Chinese is a waste of time: A modest proposal. In: Foreign Language Annals 41 (2), S. 237–251.
  • Chan, Shui Duen (2019): Chinese for Specific Purposes in the Hong Kong Context. In: Hongyin Tao und Howard Hao-Jan Chen (Hg.): Chinese for Specific and Professional Purposes. Theory, Pedagogical Applications, and Practices. 1st ed. Singapore: Springer Singapore (Chinese Language Learning Sciences), S. 393–409.
  • Cheng, Fei-Wen (2017): Construing CSL Writing as Meaning-Making: A Genre-Based Approach. In: Istvan Kecskes (Hg.): Explorations into Chinese as a Second Language. Cham: Springer International Publishing (Educational Linguistics, v.31), S. 111–139.
  • Lu, Yang; Song, Lianyi (2017): European benchmarking Chinese language. Defining the competences in the written language. In: Yang Lu (Hg.): Teaching and Learning Chinese in Higher Education. Theoretical and Practical Issues: Routledge, S. 13–34.
  • Luan, Duo (2017): The application of a visual stimulation approach for teaching CFL at beginner level. In: Yang Lu (Hg.): Teaching and Learning Chinese in Higher Education. Theoretical and Practical Issues: Routledge, S. 131–156.

3.4.5.2 Schriftzeichen Graphemkompetenz


  • Becker, Kay Ariane (2010): Grundlagen erfolgreicher Schriftzeichenvermittlung. In: CHUN – Chinesischunterricht 25, S. 186–195.
  • Chen, Huoping (2004): Fun with Chinese characters (Straits times collection = Hai xia shi bao cong shu).
  • Chen, Tianxu (2019): Radical Awareness Development of L2 Chinese Learners in the U.S. Comparing Heritage Learners and Non-heritage Learners. In: Fangyuan Yuan und Shuai Li (Hg.): Classroom Research on Chinese as a Second Language: Routledge, S. 155–170.
  • Chung, K. K. H. (2002): Effective use of hanyu pinyin and English translations as extra stimulus prompts on learning of Chinese characters. In: Educational Psychology 22 (2), S. 149–164.
  • Chung, K. K. H. (2007): Presentation factors in the learning of Chinese characters: The order and position of Hanyu Pinyin and English translations. In: Educational Psychology 27 (1), S. 1–20.
  • Cornet, Emmanuel (2006): À la découverte du chinois. Paris: H & K.
  • Da, Jun; Zheng, Yanqun (2018): Technology and the teaching and learning of Chinese as a foreign language. In: Chuanren Ke (Hg.): The Routledge Handbook of Chinese Second Language Acquisition. Milton: Routledge (Routledge Language Handbooks), S. 432–447.
  • Derega, Yaroslav; Derega, Roksolan (2014): Zeichen des Himmels. Chinesisch für neugierige Kinder und kluge Erwachsene. Stuttgart: Schmetterling Verlag.
  • Ding, Yi (2015): Chinesische Kreuzworträtsel. Grund- und Mittelstufe. Band 2 (Schriftzeichen – Pinyin – Deutsch): Sun and Sunday Books.
  • Everson, Michael E. (2007): „Developing Orthographic Awareness Among CFL Learners: What the Research Tells Us“. In: Andreas/Jiang Xin 江新/Wan Yexin 万业馨 (Hrsg.) Guder (Hg.): Hanzi de renzhi yu jiaoxue: Xifang xuexizhe hanzi renzhi guoji yantaohui. The cognition, learning and teaching of Chinese characters. 汉字的认知与教学:西方学习者汉字认知国际研讨会. Beijing: Beijing Language and Culture University Press, S. 33–50.
  • Fan, Hui-Mei (2010): Developing orthographic awareness among beginning Chinese language learners: investigating the influence of beginning level textbooks. University of Iowa, Iowa.
  • Guder, Andreas: Bibliographie Sinographemdidaktik. Online verfügbar unter http://userpage.fu-berlin.de/~guder/dissbib.htm.
  • Guder-Manitius, Andreas (1999): Sinographemdidaktik. Aspekte einer systematischen Vermittlung der chinesischen Schrift im Unterricht Chinesisch als Fremdsprache ; mit einer Komponentenanalyse der häufigsten 3867 Schriftzeichen. Heidelberg: Groos (Sinolinguistica, Bd. 7).
  • Heisig, James W.; Richardson, Timothy W. (2012): Remembering traditional Hanzi. How not to forget the meaning and writing of Chinese characters. Honolulu: University of Hawai’i Press.
  • Hsiang-Yu Hsiung; Yu-Lin Chang; Hsueh-Chih Chen; Yao-Ting Sung (2017): Effect of stroke-order learning and handwriting exercises on recognizing and writing Chinese characters by Chinese as a foreign language learners. In: Computers in Human Behavior 74, S. 303–310. DOI: 10.1016/j.chb.2017.04.022.
  • Hsueh, ShaoLan (2014): Chineasy: Chinesisch ganz easy. Hamburg: Edel Germany Verlag.
  • Huang, Jincheng (2013): Han zi ABC (Zhong wen ban). 1. Shang hai: Shang hai wai yu jiao yu chu ban she.
  • Jackson, Nancy E.; Everson, Michael E.; Ke, Chuanren (2003): Beginning Readers‘ Awareness of the Orthographic Structure of Semantic-Phonetic Compounds: Lessons from a Study of Learners of Chinese as a Foreign Language. In: Catherine McBride-Chang und Hsuan-Chih Chen (Hg.): Reading Development in Chinese Children. Westport, CT: Praeger, S. 141–153.
  • Ke, Chuanren (1996): An Empirical Study on the Relationship between Chinese Character Recognition and Production. In: The Modern Language Journal 80 (3), S. 340–349.
  • Klöter, Henning (2011): Lang, kurz, beides oder nichts? Chinesische Schriftzeichendidaktik in Zeiten von GeR, BA/MA und digital input. In: CHUN – Chinesischunterricht 26, S. 76–80.
  • Kölla, Brigitte (2009): Zhongguozi – Shuxie. Beijing: The Commercial Press.
  • Kuhn, Barbara (1989): Die MEBIWEGAL-Methode. Friedrich Gilberts mnemotechnischer Ansatz zur Vermittlung der chinesischen Schrift. In: CHUN – Chinesischunterricht
  • Kupfer, Peter (1994): Moderne Schriftzeichenforschung und Schriftzeichendidaktik. In: CHUN – Chinesischunterricht 10, S. 117–131.
  • Lam, Ho Cheong (2011): A criticial Analysis of the Various Ways of Teachin Chinese Characters. In: Electronic Journal of Foreign Language Teaching 8 (1), S. 57–70.
  • Lee, Philip Yungkin; Tibbles, Darell (2009): 250 essential Chinese characters. 1. Aufl. Rutland, Vt: Tuttle Pub.
  • Lee, Philip Yungkin; Yang, Jun (2012): Chinese flash cards. HSK elementary level.
  • Lee, Philip Yungkin; Yang, Jun (2012): Chinese flash cards: Tuttle Publishing.
  • Lee, Philip Yungkin; Yang, Jun (2013): Chinese flash cards. HSK intermediate level.
  • Li, Leyi; Gu, Xijia; Wang, Manli (2010): 中国文字.中国故事. Zhongguo wenzi. Zhongguo gushi. Guangzhou: Guangdong jiaoyu chu¬ban¬she.
  • Li, Peiyuan 李培元 (1986): 汉字教学简述-对外汉语教学发展史之一章 Hanzi jiaoxue jianshu. Duiwai Hanyu jiaoxue fazhanshi shi yi zhang. In: Shuangbao Hu (Hg.): 第一届国际汉语教学讨论会论文选. Beijing: 北京语言学院出版社, S. 307–314.
  • Li Junhong ; Lee Kunshan (2006): Hanzi jiaoxue de chufadian – zi xing 汉字教学的出发点—-字形 (The Graphic Factor in the Teaching and Learning of Chinese Characters). In: Journal of the Chinese Language Teachers Association 41 (1), S. 79–92.
  • Lin, Shan (2002): What’s in a Chinese name. 3. Aufl. Singapore: Times Books International.
  • Loh, Elizabeth K. Y.; Tam, Loretta C.W.; Lau, Cally P.T.; Leung, Shing On (2017): How Ethnic Minority Students Perceive Patterns in Chinese Characters: Knowledge of. Character Components and Structures. In: Dongbo Zhang und Chin-Hsi Lin (Hg.): Chinese as a Second Language Assessment: Springer (Chinese Language Learning Sciences), S. 91–113.
  • Lu, Yang (2017): Exploring the criterion-validity of HSK Levels 3 and 4. Are assessments and CEFR standards related? In: Yang Lu (Hg.): Teaching and Learning Chinese in Higher Education. Theoretical and Practical Issues: Routledge, S. 35–56.
  • Lu, Yang; Song, Lianyi (2017): European benchmarking Chinese language. Defining the competences in the written language. In: Yang Lu (Hg.): Teaching and Learning Chinese in Higher Education. Theoretical and Practical Issues: Routledge, S. 13–34.
  • Ma, Jianfei马箭飞; Guo, Longsheng郭龙生; Dai, Hongliang戴红亮 (2009): Das Elementare Chinesische Wörterbuch – Die 800 häufigsten chinesischen Schriftzeichen – 汉语800字: Foreign Language teaching and research press-外研社.
  • McLaren, Anne E.; Bettinson, Mat (2016): Digital Tools for Chinese Character Acquisition and Their Impact on Student Motivation. In: Robyn Moloney und Hui Ling Xu (Hg.): Exploring Innovative Pedagogy in the Teaching and Learning of Chinese as a Foreign Language: Springer Singapore (Multilingual Education), S. 235–251.
  • McNaughton, William; Fan, Jiageng (2013): Reading and writing Chinese. A comprehensive guide to the Chinese writing system. Third edition: Tuttle Publishing.
  • Meng Kunya, Cornelia) (2004): tongyong hanzi zhong de lixiang shengpang yu hanzi dengji dagang 通用汉字中的理想声旁与汉字等级大纲. In: di qi jie guoji hanyu jiaoxue taolunhui lunwen xuan bianweihui《第七届国际汉语教学讨论会论文选》编辑委员会 (Hg.): di qi jie guoji hanyu jiaoxue taolunhui lunwen xuan 第七届国际汉语教学讨论会论文选. Beijing: Beijing daxue chubanshe.
  • Menzel, Cornelia (2000): Zur Phonetizität der chinesischen Schrift – Könnte die Nutzung von Phonetika das Erlernen der chinesischen Schrift erleichtern? In: CHUN – Chinesischunterricht 16, S. 49–60.
  • Menzel, Cornelia (2003): Ideale Phonetika in der Liste allgemein gebräuchlicher Schriftzeichen und in der HSK-Schriftzeichenliste – Überlegungen zur Didaktisierung von Phonetika im ChaF-Unterricht I. In: CHUN – Chinesischunterricht 18, S. 131–144.
  • Neubauer, Diane (2018): Cold Character Reading: A Chinese Literacy Strategy. In: Central States Council on the Teaching of Foreign Languages (Hg.): CSCTFL Report: The Power of Language, The Power of People: Celebrating 50 Years. Central States Conference on the Teaching of Foreign Languages, S. 137–154. Online verfügbar unter https://csctfl.wildapricot.org/resources/Documents/2018Report/7%20Neubauer.pdf.
  • Newill, Kester (2017): Collins easy learning Mandarin Chinese characters. Second edition.: HarperCollins Publishers (Collins easy learning).
  • Olmanson, Justin; Liu, Xianquan (2017): The Challenge of Chinese Character Acquisition. Leveraging Multimodality in Overcoming a Centuries-Old Problem. In: Emerging Learning Design Journal 4 (1), S. 1–9. Online verfügbar unter https://digitalcommons.unl.edu/teachlearnfacpub/239/.
  • Park, Kum Ho; Kong, Kyung Yomg (2013): Enjoy learning Chinese characters. Discover their hidden meanings: Kong and Park.
  • Ren, Yi (2017): Learning mandarin chinese characters volume 1. The quick and easy way to learn chinese characters! (hsk level 1 & ap exam prep): Tuttle Publishing.
  • Schindelin, Cornelia (2012): „Schriftzeichen lernt man am besten Strich für Strich?“ Aspekte der Schriftzeichendidaktik. In: CHUN – Chinesischunterricht 27, S. 5–21.
  • Schmidt, Melanie (2013): Strichfolgen-Wörterbuch für chinesische Zeichen (Kurzzeichen). Strichfolgen für 3450 chinesische Schriftzeichen. 1. Aufl. Frankfurt am Main: Mandarin Strokes.
  • Schmidt, Muhammad Wolfgang (2016): A dictionary of the 3,500 most frequently used Chinese characters. Their Romanized transcription in Hanyu Pinyi, with English meaning definition, and their stroke order : a reference manual. Hamburg: disserta Verlag.
  • Schmidt, Muhammad Wolfgang G. A. (2016): Chinesisches Zeichenlexikon. Die 3500 häufigsten Schriftzeichen in Aussprache, Bedeutung und Schreibung mit einem praktischen Schreibübungsteil.
  • Schmitt, Sebastian (2015): Poetik des chinesischen Logogramms. Zugl.: Marburg, Univ, Bielefeld. Online verfügbar unter http://dx.doi.org/10.14361/9783839432471.
  • Shen, H. H. (2000): Radical knowledge and character learning among learners of Chinese as a foreign language. In: Linguistic Studies, S. 85–93.
  • Shen, H. H. (2010): Analysis of Radical Knowledge Development Among Beginning CFL Learners. In: Michael E. Everson und Helen H. Shen (Hg.): Research among learners of Chinese as a Foreign Language. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press (Chinese Language Teachers Association monograph series, 5), S. 45–66.
  • Shen, H. H.; Ke, C. (2007): Radical awareness and word acquisition among non-native learners of Chinese. In: Modern Language Journal 91 (1), S. 97–111.
  • Sung, Ko-Yin (2012): A study on Chinese-character learning strategies and character learning performance among American learners of Chinese. In: Chinese as a Second Language Research 1 (2), S. 193–211.
  • Taft, M.; Chung, K. (1999): Using radicals in teaching Chinese characters to second language learners. In: Psychologia: An International Journal of Psychology in the Orient 42 (4), S. 243–251.
  • Wan, Yexin (2014): Zhongguozi – Renzhi (Han-De Ban). 中国字,认知(汉德版). Lehrwerk für Chinesisch als Fremdsprache. Beijing: The Commercial Press.
  • Wang, Huidi (1999): Cheng and Tsui Chinese Character Dictionary: A Guide to the 2,000 Most Frequently-Used Characters. Boston: Cheng & Tsui Company.
  • Wang Youmin (2000): Hanzi yu xiezuo nengli diaocha de zhengti sheji 汉字与写作能力调查的整体设计. Beijing: Huayu jiaoxue chubanshe 华语教学出版社
  • Xiao, Yun (2002): The effect of character density on learning Chinese as a foreign language. In: Journal of the Chinese Language Teachers Association 37 (3), S. 71–84.
  • Xiao, Yun (2008): Teaching Chinese Orthography and Discourse. In: Michael E. Everson und Yun Xiao (Hg.): Teaching Chinese as a Foreign Language. Theories and Applications. Boston: Cheng & Tsui Company, S. 113–130.
  • Xin, J. (2006): The effects of frequency and productivity on character learning by elementary L2 learners from alphabetic language backgrounds. In: Acta Psychologica Sinica 38 (4), S. 489–496.
  • Ye, Lijuan (2011): Teaching and Learning Chinese as a Foreign Language in the United States: To Delay or Not to Delay the Character Introduction. Dissertation. Georgia State University, Atlanta.
  • Yin Jinghua (2003): Meiguo daxuesheng jiyi hanzi shi shiyong de fangfa 美国大学生记忆汉字时使用的方法–问卷调查报告 [Methoden amerikanischer Studenten zur Zeichenmemorisierung]. In: Journal of the Chinese Language Teachers Association 38 (3), S. 69–90.
  • Zhang, Tianlu; Ke, Chuanren (2018): Research on L2 Chinese character acquisition. In: Chuanren Ke (Hg.): The Routledge Handbook of Chinese Second Language Acquisition. Milton: Routledge (Routledge Language Handbooks), S. 103–133.
  • Zhang, Z.-S (2009): Myth, reality and character instruction in the 21st century. In: Journal of the Chinese Language Teachers Association 44 (1), S. 69–89.
  • Zhang Jingxian (1998): youguan bianxie duiwai hanzi jiaocai de jige wenti 有关编写对外汉字教材的几个问题. In: Lü Bisong (Hg.): hanzi yu hanzi jiaoxue yanjiu lunwenxuan 汉字与汉字教学研究论文选. Beijing: Beijing daxue chubanshe.
  • Zhao Mingde (2001): cong hanzi rushou tansuo duiwai hanyu jiaoxue de xin silu – oumei pian 从汉字入手探索对外汉语教学的新思路——欧美篇. In: Zhongguo duiwai hanyu jiaoxue xuehui beijing fenhui 中国对外汉语教学学会北京分会 (Hg.): Zhongguo duiwai hanyu jiaoxue xuehui beijing fenhui di er jie xueshu nianhui lunwen ji 中国对外汉语教学学会北京分会第二届学术年会论文集. Beijing: Beijing yuyan wenhua daxue chubanshe 北京语言文化大学出版社.
  • Zhou, Jian (1998): „Hanzi nanxue“ de fenxi duice“汉字难学“的分析与对策. In: Hanzi Wenhua 2, S. 57–60.

3.4.5.3 Textkompetenz


  • Chen, Chen 陈晨 (2010): Yingyu guojia xuesheng zhong-gaoji Hanyu pianzhang xianjie kaocha 英语国家学生中高级汉语篇章衔接考察. In: Cui Xiliang u.a. (Hg.): Ou-Mei xuesheng Hanyu xuexi he renzhi yanjiu 欧美学生汉语学习和认知研究. Beijing: Beijing daxue chubanshe, S. 272–282.
  • Chen, Chen 陈晨 (2010): Yingyu muyu xuesheng Hanyu yupian lianjie chengfen xide qingkuang de kaocha 英语母语学生汉语语篇连结成分习得情况的考察. In: Cui Xiliang u.a. (Hg.): Ou-Mei xuesheng Hanyu xuexi he renzhi yanjiu 欧美学生汉语学习和认知研究. Beijing: Beijing daxue chubanshe, S. 283–299.
  • Cheng, Fei-Wen (2017): Construing CSL Writing as Meaning-Making: A Genre-Based Approach. In: Istvan Kecskes (Hg.): Explorations into Chinese as a Second Language. Cham: Springer International Publishing (Educational Linguistics, v.31), S. 111–139.
  • Gao, Binnan (2014): Comparison between Advanced-Level Chinese Heritage and Non-heritage Learners’ Narrative Writing. In: Nan Jiang (Hg.): Advances in Chinese as a Second Language. Acquisition and Processing. Newcastle upon Tyne: Cambridge Scholars Publishing, S. 77–102.
  • Hsieh, Yufen; Hiew, Cha Kie; Tay, Yong Xiang (2017): Computer-Mediated Corrective Feedback in Chinese as a Second Language Writing: Learners’ Perspectives. In: Dongbo Zhang und Chin-Hsi Lin (Hg.): Chinese as a Second Language Assessment: Springer (Chinese Language Learning Sciences), S. 225–246.
  • Lam, Ho Cheong (2011): A criticial Analysis of the Various Ways of Teachin Chinese Characters. In: Electronic Journal of Foreign Language Teaching 8 (1), S. 57–70.
  • Li Xiaoqi (Hg.) (2006): duiwai hanyu yuedu yu xiezuo jiaoxue yanjiu 对外汉语阅读与写作教学研究. Beijing: Shangwu yinshuguan.
  • Lu, Yang (2017): Exploring the criterion-validity of HSK Levels 3 and 4. Are assessments and CEFR standards related? In: Yang Lu (Hg.): Teaching and Learning Chinese in Higher Education. Theoretical and Practical Issues: Routledge, S. 35–56.
  • Lu, Yang; Song, Lianyi (2017): European benchmarking Chinese language. Defining the competences in the written language. In: Yang Lu (Hg.): Teaching and Learning Chinese in Higher Education. Theoretical and Practical Issues: Routledge, S. 13–34.
  • Luo Qingsong (2002): duiwai hanyu xiezuo jiaoxue yanjiu 对外汉语写作教学研究. Beijing: Zhongguo shehui kexue chubanshe 中国社会科学出版社.
  • Qing Ma (2013): Matching vocabulary learning process with learning outcome in L2 academic writing: An exploratory case study. In: Linguistics and Education 24 (2), S. 237–246. DOI: 10.1016/j.linged.2012.11.002.
  • Richter, Harald (1986): Terra incognita des Chinesischunterrichts: Sprachstilistik (xiucixue). In: CHUN – Chinesischunterricht
  • Shum, Mark S. K.; Zhang, Lude (Hg.) (2006): Teaching Writing in Chinese Speaking Areas: Springer.
  • Wang Youmin (2000): Hanzi yu xiezuo nengli diaocha de zhengti sheji 汉字与写作能力调查的整体设计. Beijing: Huayu jiaoxue chubanshe 华语教学出版社
  • Wu, Daming (2005): Contents and Strategies of Chinese Computing Skills Learning. In: CHUN – Chinesischunterricht 20, S. 33–40.
  • Xiang, Catherine Hua; Ji, Yue (2017): An analysis of advanced L2 Chinese learners’ common errors and their perceptions of errors in argument-based essays. In: Yang Lu (Hg.): Teaching and Learning Chinese in Higher Education. Theoretical and Practical Issues: Routledge, S. 201–227.
  • Xiao, Yun (2010): Discourse Features and Development in Chinese L 2 Writing. In: Michael E. Everson und Helen H. Shen (Hg.): Research among learners of Chinese as a Foreign Language. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press (Chinese Language Teachers Association monograph series, 5), S. 133–152.
  • Xiao-Desai, Yang (2019): The Effects of Online Writing on Heritage Language Anxiety—A Bayesian Analysis. In: Fangyuan Yuan und Shuai Li (Hg.): Classroom Research on Chinese as a Second Language: Routledge, S. 128–151.
  • Yang, Chun 杨春 (2010): Yingyu guojia xuesheng chuji Hanyu yupian zhaoying pianwu kaocha 英语国家学生初级汉语语篇照应偏误考察. In: Cui Xiliang u.a. (Hg.): Ou-Mei xuesheng Hanyu xuexi he renzhi yanjiu 欧美学生汉语学习和认知研究. Beijing: Beijing daxue chubanshe, S. 263–271.
  • Yang, Chunsheng (2013): Textual Conjunctives and Topic-fronting Devices in CFL Learners’ Written Summaries. In: Journal of Chinese Lanugage Teachers Association 48 (1), S. 71–89.
  • Zhang Chen (2010): Hanyu yuxu de lishi fazhan汉语语序的历史发展: Beijing Yuyan Daxue Chubanshe北京语言大学出版社.
  • Zhao, Shuai (2017): The effect of instruction on L2 writing in Chinese. A T-unit analysis. In: Yang Lu (Hg.): Teaching and Learning Chinese in Higher Education. Theoretical and Practical Issues: Routledge, S. 228–248.
  • Zhu, Yu; Fung, Shui-Lung; Tse, Shek-Kam; Hsieh, Chi-Yi (2017): Exploring the Relationship Between Raters’ Personality Traits and Rating Severity in Writing Assessment of Chinese as a Second Language: A Pilot Study. In: Dongbo Zhang und Chin-Hsi Lin (Hg.): Chinese as a Second Language Assessment: Springer (Chinese Language Learning Sciences), S. 203–223.