1.2.1 Phonetik und Phonologie des Chinesischen

1.2.1 Phonetik und Phonologie des Chinesischen

  • Cao, Wen (2010): 汉语焦点重音的韵律实现. Hanyu jiaodian zhongyin de yunlü shixian. Putonghua tong wen yi jiao ju de shiyan yanjiu. Di 1 ban. Beijing: Beijing yuyan daxue.
  • Guo, Jinfu 郭锦桴 (1993): 汉语声调语调阐要与探索 hanyu shengdiao yudiao chanyao yu tansuo. 北京: 北京语言学院出版社.
  • Jiang, Nan (Hg.) (2014): Advances in Chinese as a Second Language. Acquisition and Processing. Newcastle upon Tyne: Cambridge Scholars Publishing. Online verfügbar unter https://www.cambridgescholars.com/advances-in-chinese-as-a-second-language-9.
  • Kehrein, Wolfgang (2017): Segmental structure and tone. Berlin: Walter de Gruyter & Co (Linguistische Arbeiten, 552).
  • Lee, Yong-cheol (2015): Prosodic focus within and across languages. Dissertation. University of Pennsylvania.
  • Tao, Hongyin (Hg.) (2016): Integrating Chinese Linguistic Research and Language Teaching and Learning. Amsterdam: John Benjamins Publishing Company (7). Online verfügbar unter https://benjamins.com/catalog/scld.7.
  • Třísková, Hana (2016): De-stressed words in Mandarin: drawing parallel with English. In: Hongyin Tao (Hg.): Integrating Chinese Linguistic Research and Language Teaching and Learning. Amsterdam: John Benjamins Publishing Company (7), S. 121–144.
  • Třísková, Hana (2017): De-Stress in Mandarin. Clitics, Cliticoids, and Phonetic Chunks. In: Istvan Kecskes und Chaofen Sun (Hg.): Key Issues In Chinese as a Second Language Research. New York, NY : Routledge, [2017]: Routledge, S. 29–56.
  • Zhang, Hang (2018): Current trends in research of Chinese sound acquisition. In: Chuanren Ke (Hg.): The Routledge Handbook of Chinese Second Language Acquisition. Milton: Routledge (Routledge Language Handbooks), S. 217–233.
  • Zhao Jinming (Hg.) (1997): yuyin yanjiu yu duiwai hanyu jiaoxue 语音研究与对外汉语教学. Beijing: Beijing yuyan wenhua daxue chubanshe 北京语言文化大学出版社.

1.2.1.1 Einführende Darstellungen


  • Cheng, Chin-chuan (1973): A synchronic phonology of Mandarin Chinese. Monographs on linguistic analysis ; 4. The Hague.
  • Cheng, Robert Liang-wei (1966): Mandarin Phonological Structure. In: Journal of Linguistics 2 (2), S. 135–158.
  • Cremerius, Ruth (2012): Aussprache und Schrift des Chinesischen. Eine Einführung. Hamburg: Buske.
  • Duanmu, San (2002): The phonology of standard Chinese. Oxford: Oxford University Press (Oxford linguistics).
  • Li, Wen-Chao (1999): A diachronically-motivated segmental phonology of Mandarin Chinese. New York, NY u.a: Lang (Berkeley insights in linguistics and semiotics, 37).
  • Lin, Hua (2001): A grammar of Mandarin Chinese. München: LINCOM EUROPA (Languages of the world;Materials, 344).
  • Norman, Jerry (1988): Chinese. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press (Cambridge language surveys).
  • Rao Bingcai (1989): Shilun yuyinxue yu duiwai Hanyu jiaoxue 试论语音学与对外汉语教学. In: Shijie hanyu jiaoxue (2).
  • Sparvoli, Carlotta (2017): From Phonological Studies to Teaching Mandarin Tone. Some Perspectives on the Revision of the Tonal Inventory. In: Istvan Kecskes und Chaofen Sun (Hg.): Key Issues In Chinese as a Second Language Research. New York, NY : Routledge, [2017]: Routledge, S. 81–100.
  • Sun, Chaofen (2006): Chinese. A linguistic introduction. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Online verfügbar unter http://www.loc.gov/catdir/enhancements/fy0617/2006299710-d.html.
  • Yeh, Victor C. (1986): Phonetic Chinese language. A tone-based language. In: Journal of the Chinese Language Teachers Association 21 (2), S. 75–78.
  • Zhang, Hang (2017): The Effects of Tonal Markedness in Second Language Chinese Tones. In: Istvan Kecskes und Chaofen Sun (Hg.): Key Issues In Chinese as a Second Language Research. New York, NY : Routledge, [2017]: Routledge, S. 57–80.

1.2.1.2 Tonalität


  • Bao, Zhiming (1999): The structure of tone. New York: Oxford University Press. Online verfügbar unter http://www.loc.gov/catdir/enhancements/fy0602/99019275-d.html.
  • Chen, Chung-yu (1984): Neutral Tone in Mandarin: phonotactic description and the issue of the norm. In: Journal of Chinese Linguistics 12 (2), S. 299–333.
  • Chen, Chun-Mei (2013): Gestures as tone markers in multilingual communication. In: Istvan Kecskes (Hg.): Research in Chinese as a Second Language. Berlin: de Gruyter Mouton (Trends in Applied Linguistics /TAL], 9), S. 143–168.
  • Chen, Matthew Y. (2000): Tone Sandhi. Patterns across Chinese dialects. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press (Cambridge studies in linguistics, 92).
  • Chen, Wang (2013): Learning tones cooperatively in the CSL classroom: A proposal. In: Istvan Kecskes (Hg.): Research in Chinese as a Second Language. Berlin: de Gruyter Mouton (Trends in Applied Linguistics /TAL], 9), S. 65–78.
  • Cheng, Chin-chuan (1973): A quantitative study of Chinese Tones. In: Journal of Chinese Linguistics 1 (1), 93-.
  • Ching, Nora (1971): A minor problem in tone Sandhi. In: Journal of the Chinese Language Teachers Association 6, S. 41–57.
  • Duanmu, San (1994): Against Contour Tone Units. In: Linguistic Inquiry 25 (4), S. 555–608.
  • Fox, Robert A.; Unkefer, James (1985): The effect of lexical status on the perception of tone. In: Journal of Chinese Linguistics 13 (1), S. 69–90.
  • Fox, Robert Allen; Qi, Ying-yong (1990): Context effects in the perception of lexical tone. In: Journal of Chinese Linguistics 18 (2), S. 261–284.
  • Gandour, Jack (1984): Tone dissimilarity judgments by Chinese listeners. In: Journal of Chinese Linguistics 12 (2), S. 235–261.
  • Glewwe, Eleanor (2015): Tonal Assignment in English Loanwords in Mandarin Chinese. UCLA, Los Angeles. Online verfügbar unter https://escholarship.org/uc/item/6800j92m.
  • Hao, Yen-Chen; Liu, Jennifer Li-Chia (2019): The Effects of Tone Training on Tone Perception Accuracy in Chinese Language Classrooms. In: Fangyuan Yuan und Shuai Li (Hg.): Classroom Research on Chinese as a Second Language: Routledge, S. 21–44.
  • Ho, Aichen Ting (1976): Mandarin tones in relation to sentence intonation and grammatical structure. In: Journal of Chinese Linguistics 4 (1), S. 1–13.
  • Howie, John Marshall (1976): Acoustical studies of Mandarin vowels and tones. Cambridge (Princeton-Cambridge studies in Chinese linguistics, 6).
  • Hung, Tony T. N. (1990): Syntax-phonology interaction in Chinese tone Sandhi. An overview. In: Journal of the Chinese Language Teachers Association 25 (3), S. 43–60.
  • Lee, Wai-Sum; Zee, Eric (2008): Prosodic Characteristics of the Neutral Tone in Beijing Mandarin. In: Journal of Chinese Linguistics 36 (1), S. 1–29.
  • Liang, Jie; Heuven, Vincent T. van (2007): Chinese tone and intonation perceived by L1 and L2 listeners. In: Carlos Gussenhoven und Tomas Riad (Hg.): Experimental Studies in Word and Sentence Prosody. Berlin u.a (Phonology and Phonetics, 12.2, Volume 2), S. 27–62.
  • Lin, Isabelle (2017): Tone Sequences in Lexical Processing of Beijing Mandarin. Master-Arbeit. University of California, Los Angeles. Online verfügbar unter https://escholarship.org/uc/item/030998m7.
  • Massaro, Dominic W.; Cohen, Michael M.; Tseng, Chiu-yu (1985): The evaluation and integration of pitch height and pitch contour in lexical tone perception in Mandarin Chinese. In: Journal of Chinese Linguistics 13 (2), S. 267–290.
  • Pian, Rulan Chao (2000): Tone and Tone: Appling Musical Elements to Chinese Words. In: Journal of Chinese Linguistics 28 (2), S. 181–200.
  • Rohr, Jessica (2014): Training naïve learners to identify Chinese tone: An inductive approach. In: Nan Jiang (Hg.): Advances in Chinese as a Second Language. Acquisition and Processing. Newcastle upon Tyne: Cambridge Scholars Publishing, S. 158–178.
  • Shen, Guannan (2015): Perceptual learning of lexical tone categories. An ERP study. Columbia University.
  • Sparvoli, Carlotta (2017): From Phonological Studies to Teaching Mandarin Tone. Some Perspectives on the Revision of the Tonal Inventory. In: Istvan Kecskes und Chaofen Sun (Hg.): Key Issues In Chinese as a Second Language Research. New York, NY : Routledge, [2017]: Routledge, S. 81–100.
  • Tao, Liang; Guo, Lijuan (2008): Learning Chinese Tones: A Developmental Account. In: Journal of the Chinese Language Teachers Association 43 (2), S. 17–46.
  • Tri, Hana (Hg.) (2001): Tone, stress and rhythm in spoken Chinese. International Workshop on Tone, Stress and Rhythm in Spoken Chinese ; (Prague) : 1999.05. Berkeley (Journal of Chinese linguistics : Monograph series, 17).
  • Tseng, Chiu-yu (2006): An acoustic phonetic study on tones in mandarin Chinese. 國語字調的聲學語音研究 [Guo yu zi diao de sheng xue yu yin yan jiu]. Taipei, Taiwan: Institute of Lingustics, Academia Sinica.
  • Wan, I-Ping; Jaeger, Jeri (1998): Speech Errors and the Representation of Tone in Mandarin Chinese. In: Phonology 15 (3), S. 417–461.
  • Wee, L. H. (2007): Unraveling the Relation between Mandarin Tones and Musical Melody. In: Journal of Chinese Linguistics 35 (1), S. 128–144.
  • Yang, Juan; Medwell, Jane (2017): Learners’ and Teachers’ Beliefs About Learning Tones and Pinyin. In: Istvan Kecskes (Hg.): Explorations into Chinese as a Second Language. Cham: Springer International Publishing (Educational Linguistics, v.31), S. 141–163.
  • Yip, Moira (1990): The tonal phonology of Chinese. New York, London: Garland (Outstanding dissertations in linguistics).
  • Yip, Moira (2002): Tone. 1. publ. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press (Cambridge textbooks in linguistics). Online verfügbar unter http://www.loc.gov/catdir/toc/cam031/2002073726.html.
  • Zajdler, Ewa (2015): Identifying the acoustic features in tonal phonemes in Chinese. In: An International Journal of Applied Linguistics 42 (2), S. 23–30. DOI: 10.14746/gl.2015.42.2.2.
  • Zhang, Hang (2017): The Effects of Tonal Markedness in Second Language Chinese Tones. In: Istvan Kecskes und Chaofen Sun (Hg.): Key Issues In Chinese as a Second Language Research. New York, NY : Routledge, [2017]: Routledge, S. 57–80.

1.2.1.3 Intonation, Prosodie


  • Duanmu, San (2004): A Corpus Study of Chinese Regulated Verse: Phrasal Stress and the Analysis of Variability. In: Phonology 21 (1), S. 43–89.
  • Feng, Shengli (2002): Prosodic syntax and morphology in Chinese. Muenchen: LINCOM EUROPA (LINCOM studies in Asian linguistics, 44).
  • Gussenhoven, Carlos; Riad, Tomas (Hg.) (2007): Experimental Studies in Word and Sentence Prosody. Berlin u.a (Phonology and Phonetics, 12.2, Volume 2).
  • Ho, Aichen Ting (1976): Mandarin tones in relation to sentence intonation and grammatical structure. In: Journal of Chinese Linguistics 4 (1), S. 1–13.
  • Hung, Feng-sheng (1996): Prosody and the acquisition of grammatical morphemes in Chinese languages. Bloomington Ind.: Indiana University Linguistics Club.
  • Lee, Wai-Sum; Zee, Eric (2008): Prosodic Characteristics of the Neutral Tone in Beijing Mandarin. In: Journal of Chinese Linguistics 36 (1), S. 1–29.
  • Liang, Jie; Heuven, Vincent T. van (2007): Chinese tone and intonation perceived by L1 and L2 listeners. In: Carlos Gussenhoven und Tomas Riad (Hg.): Experimental Studies in Word and Sentence Prosody. Berlin u.a (Phonology and Phonetics, 12.2, Volume 2), S. 27–62.
  • Liu, Zhaojing 刘兆静; Gao, Liqun 高立群 (2010): Zhong-wai xuesheng liyong Hanyu yunlü xinxi xiaojie jufa jiegou qiyi de shiyan yanjiu 中外学生利用汉语韵律信息消解句法结构歧义的实验研究. In: Cui Xiliang u.a. (Hg.): Ou-Mei xuesheng Hanyu xuexi he renzhi yanjiu 欧美学生汉语学习和认知研究. Beijing: Beijing daxue chubanshe, S. 174–180.
  • Lu, Bingfu; Duanmu, San (2002): Rhythm and Syntax in Chinese. A Case Study. In: Journal of the Chinese Language Teachers Association 37 (2), S. 123–135.
  • Shen, Xiaonan Susan (1988): Identifying topic in Chinese through prosodic features. In: Journal of the Chinese Language Teachers Association 23 (2), S. 17–32.
  • Shen, Xiao-nan Susan (1989): Interplay of the four citation Tones and Intonation in Mandarin Chinese. In: Journal of Chinese Linguistics 17 (1), S. 61–74.
  • Shen, Xiao-nan Susan (1990): The prosody of Mandarin Chinese. Berkeley: University of California Press (University of California publications in linguistics, 118). Online verfügbar unter http://www.loc.gov/catdir/description/ucal041/89020203.html.
  • Tri, Hana (Hg.) (2001): Tone, stress and rhythm in spoken Chinese. International Workshop on Tone, Stress and Rhythm in Spoken Chinese ; (Prague) : 1999.05. Berkeley (Journal of Chinese linguistics : Monograph series, 17).
  • Zhang, Hang (2016): Prominence marking in second language Chinese tones. In: Hongyin Tao (Hg.): Integrating Chinese Linguistic Research and Language Teaching and Learning. Amsterdam: John Benjamins Publishing Company (7), S. 195–214.

1.2.1.4 Einzelaspekte der Phonetik und Phonologie des Chinesischen


  • Bruckmann, Gabriele (1980): Untersuchung über phonetisch hervortretende Wörter im Chinesischen. Universität Zürich, Zürich.
  • Chen, Matthew Y. (1984): Abstract Symmetry in Chinese Verse. In: Linguistic Inquiry 15 (1), S. 167–170.
  • Chen, Yanrong (2016): An error analysis on chinese disyllabic tones of czech college students learning chinese as a second language.
  • Chen Juanwen ; Li Aijun ; Wang Xia (2003): Shanghai putonghua he putonghua ci zhongyin de chayi 上海普通话和普通话词重音的差异 [Unterschiede in der Wortbetonung von Shanghai putonghua und putonghua]. In: Report of Phonetic Research, S. 85–90.
  • Duanmu, San (1994): Syllabic Weight and Syllabic Duration: A Correlation between Phonology and Phonetics. In: Phonology 11 (1), S. 1–24.
  • Geilich, Barbara (1994): Nasal-Suffigierung. Eine Studie zur vergleichenden Morphologie der indo-chinesischen Sprachen.
  • Howie, John Marshall (1976): Acoustical studies of Mandarin vowels and tones. Cambridge (Princeton-Cambridge studies in Chinese linguistics, 6).
  • Karlgren, Bernhard (1954): Compendium of phonetics in ancient and archaic Chinese. Reprinted from: The Museum of Far Eastern Antiquities Bulletin (1954) 22. Göteborg.
  • Marie, C. Delogu F. Lampis G. Belardinelli M. O. &. Besson M. (2011): Influence of musical expertise on segmental and tonal processing in Mandarin Chinese. In: Journal of cognitive neuroscience 23 (10), S. 2701–2715.
  • Orton, Jane (2013): Developing Chinese oral skills – A research base for practice. In: Istvan Kecskes (Hg.): Research in Chinese as a Second Language. Berlin: de Gruyter Mouton (Trends in Applied Linguistics /TAL], 9), S. 9–32.
  • Richter, Gunnar (1996): Zur Definition der Syllabizitätsvarianten im modernen Chinesisch. In: CHUN – Chinesischunterricht
  • Richter, Gunnar (1998): Wortbildung im modernen Chinesisch unter dem Aspekt der Syllabizität (Syllabizitätsrestriktionen). In: CHUN – Chinesischunterricht
  • Shang Xiuyan (2000): Duiwai Hanyu shuiping cihui dengji dagang jia yi ji shengdiao guilü de diaocha 对外汉语水平词汇等级大纲甲乙级词声调规律的调查. In: Shijie hanyu jiaoxue (2).
  • Shen, Jiong (沈炯) (1987): Beijinghua hekouhu ling shengmude yuyin fenqi“ (北京話合口呼零聲母的語音分歧). Phonetic differences of zero initial before finals beginning with u in the Beijing dialect. In: Zhongguo Yuwen (5), S. 352–362.
  • Sun, Sylvia Henel (1998): The development of a lexical tone phonology in American adult learners of standard Mandarin Chinese. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press (Technical Report / Second Language Teaching & Curriculum Center, 16).
  • Tri, Hana (Hg.) (2001): Tone, stress and rhythm in spoken Chinese. International Workshop on Tone, Stress and Rhythm in Spoken Chinese ; (Prague) : 1999.05. Berkeley (Journal of Chinese linguistics : Monograph series, 17).
  • Wang, Jialing (Hg.) (1997): Studies in Chinese phonology. Berlin: Mouton (Linguistic models, 20).
  • Wang, Ping (2015): Phonological Prominence and Its Interaction with Tone in Chinese Dialects. PhD Thesis. University of Pittsburg. Online verfügbar unter http://d-scholarship.pitt.edu/25940/.
  • Xie, Yan (2013): Meiguo xuesheng Hanyu jichu yuanyin de xide: danziyin yu liangzizu de duibi ji shengdiao zhi zuoyong美国学生汉语基础元音的习得:单字音与两字组的对比及声调之作用. In: Journal of Chinese Lanugage Teachers Association 48 (1), S. 91–108.
  • Xu, Baode (Hg.) (2001): Chinese phonology in generative grammar. San Diego, Calif.: Academic Press. Online verfügbar unter http://www.loc.gov/catdir/description/els031/00106365.html.
  • Yang, Bei (2015): Perception and Production of Mandarin Tones by Native Speakers and L2 Learners. Softcover reprint of the original 1st ed. 2015: Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.
  • Yang, Bei (2015): Perception and Production of Mandarin Tones by Native Speakers and L2 Learners. s.l: Springer-Verlag. Online verfügbar unter http://ebooks.ciando.com/book/index.cfm/bok_id/1869059.
  • Yip, Moira (1988): The Obligatory Contour Principle and Phonological Rules: A Loss of Identity. In: Linguistic Inquiry 19 (1), S. 65–100.
  • Zajdler, Ewa (2015): Identifying the acoustic features in tonal phonemes in Chinese. In: An International Journal of Applied Linguistics 42 (2), S. 23–30. DOI: 10.14746/gl.2015.42.2.2.
  • Zhang, Weijia张维佳 (2008): Beijing yuyan daxue hanyu yuyanxue wencui – yuyin he wenzi北京语言大学汉语言文字学论丛:语音和文字卷. Sammlung wissenschaftlicher Artikel zur chinesischen Linguistik der BLCU: Phonetik und Schriftzeichen: Beijing Language and Culture University Press.
  • Zhou, Faguo (1974): A Pronouncing Dictionary of Chinese Characters in Archanic and Ancient Chinese, Mandarine and Cantonese. Hong Kong: Chinese University Press.
  • Zhu, Jingzhi Julie (2016): The Effect of Musical Aptitude. Perceiving and Producing Mandarin Lexical Tones By Non-Native Speakers of Chinese. Doctoral thesis. The University of Auckland. Online verfügbar unter https://researchspace.auckland.ac.nz/handle/2292/28386.